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Demographics of India

Demographics of India

 

             

 

This article is about the demographic features of the population of India, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of the Republic of India


Population of India, 1961-2003

Size:

1,129,866,154 (2007 est)

Growth:

1.38% (2007 est)

Birth:

22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est)

Death:

6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est)

Life expectancy:

68.59 years (2007 est)

Life expectancy(m):

66.28 years (2007 est)

Life expectancy(f):

71.17 years (2007 est)

Fertility:

2.7 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2007)

Age Structure:

0-14 years:

31.5% (male 189,238,487/female 172,168,306)(2008 est)

15-64 years:

63.3% (male 374,157,581/female 352,868,003) (2008 est)

65-0ver years:

5.2% (male 28,285,796/female 31,277,725) (2008 est)

Sex Ratio:

At birth:

1.12 male(s)/female (2008)

Under 15 years:

1.10 male(s)/female (2008)

15-64 years:

1.06 male(s)/female (2008)

Nationality:

nationality:

noun: Indian adjective: Indic

Major ethnic:

See Ethnic Groups of India

Language:

Official:

See Official languages of India

Spoken:

See List of Indian languages by number of native speakers

The Demographics of India are overall remarkably diverse. India's population of approximately 1.13 billion people (estimate for March 10, 2008) comprises approximately one-sixth of the world's population. India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language[1] spoken in parts of Maharashtra). Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[2]

Salient features

India occupies 2.4% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the world's population. India has more arable land area than any country except the United States[3], and more water area than any country except Canada and the United States. Indian life, therefore revolves mostly around agriculture and allied activities in small villages, where the overwhelming majority of Indians live. As per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population[4] lives in about 638 thousand villages[5] and the remaining 27.8%[6] lives in over 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.[7]

Census

Main article: List of states and territories of India by population

The most recent census of India was performed in 2001 for enumeration as of March 1 of that year.[8] It was the 14th census in an unbroken series, and the 6th after independence in 1947 (with the exception that census could not be held for Assam in the 1981 and Jammu & Kashmir in 1991). Eight censuses were performed under the British Raj, the first one was carried out throughout the 1860s and completed in 1872(The first incomplete census). After this, there has been one census every decade starting in 1881(First complete census).

The total population calculated for 1 March 2001 was 1,027,015,247, making the 2001 census the first to count more than a billion Indians.[9] The population had risen by 21.34% compared to the 1991 total. The female population had increased by 0.3 percentage points to 48.4%.[9]

Religious demographics

Main article: Religion in India

80.5% of the Indians are Hindus, with 13.4% of the population Muslim, making India home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. India also contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Jains and Bahá'í. Other religious groups include Christians (2.3%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), and Jews.

Religious majorities vary greatly by state. Jammu and Kashmir is the sole majority Muslim state; Nagaland is majority Christian; Punjab is mostly Sikh; Manipur is of Sanamahism.

The table below summarizes the findings of the 2001 census with regards to religion in India:

  1. All figures in %.

  2. Gender Ratio*: no of females/1000 males

  3. Others including Bahá'ís, Jews, and Parsis.

  4. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are grouped under Others after 1926 (1931 census onwards)

Table 2: Census information for 2001[α][β]

Composition  ↓

Hindus[10]  ↓

Muslims[11]  ↓

Christians[12]  ↓

Sikhs[13]  ↓

Buddhist[14]  ↓

Jains[15]  ↓

Others[16]  ↓

 % total of population 2005

80.4%

13.4%

2.3%

1.9%

1.1%

0.4%

0.5%

10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[17][β]

20.3%

29.5%

22.6%

18.2%

24.5%

26.0%

103.1%

Sex ratio* (avg. 944)

935

940

1009

895

955

940

100

Literacy rate (avg. 79.9)

75.5

60.0

90.3

70.4

73.0

95.0

50.0

Work Participation Rate

40.4

31.3

39.7

37.7

40.6

32.9

48.4

Rural sex ratio[17]

944

953

1001

895

958

937

995

Urban sex ratio[17]

922

907

1026

886

944

941

966

Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs)

925

950

964

786

942

870

976

     α.   ^  The data excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur

     β.   ^  The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir

Linguistic demographics

Main article: List of Indian languages by number of native speakers

40% of the Hindus speak Hindi while the rest speak Bangla, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Gujarati,Kannada and other languages. Almost 70% of the Muslims speak Urdu while the rest speak Kashmiri, Bangla, Malayalam, Tamil, Gujarati and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil while the rest speak a variety of languages. In total, there are 1,652 languages and dialects spoken in India.[18]

Table: Ordered by number of native speakers

Rank  ↓

Language  ↓

2001 census[1]
(total population 1,004.59 million)

 

 

Speakers

Percentage

1

Hindi dialects[19]

422,048,642

41.03%

2

Bangla

83,369,769

8.11%

3

Telugu

74,002,856

7.37%

4

Marathi

71,936,894

6.99%

5

Tamil

60,793,814

5.91%

6

Urdu

51,536,111

5.01%

7

Gujarati

46,091,617

4.48%

8

Kannada

37,924,011

3.69%

9

Malayalam

33,066,392

3.21%

10

Oriya

33,017,446

3.21%

11

Punjabi

29,102,477

2.83%

12

Assamese

13,168,484

1.28%

13

Maithili

12,179,122

1.18%

14

Santali

6,469,600

0.63%

15

Kashmiri

5,527,698

0.54%

16

Nepali

2,871,749

0.28%

17

Sindhi

2,535,485

0.25%

18

Konkani

2,489,015

0.24%

19

Dongri

2,282,589

0.22%

20

Meitei (Manipuri)

1,466,705*

0.14%

21

Bodo

1,350,478

0.13%

22

Sanskrit

14,135

N

* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao-Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur for 2001.
** The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India excluding the population of Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati district of Manipur due to cancellation of census results.
N - Stands for negligible.

Demographic statistics

Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)[20]

Total Population: 1,147.996 million (July 2008 est. CIA)[21] 1,028.7 million (2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

Map showing the population density of each district in India

Rural Population: 72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

Urban Population:
Age structure:
0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.) The median age of Indians is 25.1 years.

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2007 est.)

Birth rate: 22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

 Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India

Literacy rate: 79.9%

Percent of the population under the poverty line: 22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate: 7.8%

Net migration rate: − -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.098 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.061 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
total population: 1.064 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.) female: 29.23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 39.42 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.59 years
male: 66.28 years
female: 71.17 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (2007 est.) The TFR (Total number of children born per women ) according to Religion in 2001 was :

Hindus - 2.0, Muslims - 2.4, Sikhs - 1.6, Christians - 2.1, Buddhists - 2.1, Jains - 1.4 , Animists and Others - 2.99, Tribals - 3.16, Scheduled Castes - 2.89.[citation needed]

Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian

Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.8%, Buddhists 0.8%, Jains 0.4%, others 0.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census) [22][23] [24][25].

Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bangla with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[18][26]

2025 Estimate

Table 2: Population Projections (in millions)

Year

Under 15

15-64

65+

Total

2000

361

604

45

1010

2005

368

673

51

1093

2010

370

747

58

1175

2015

372

819

65

1256

2020

373

882

76

1331

Source: Based on P.N. Mari Bhat, "Indian Demographic Scenario 2025", Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, Discussion Paper No. 27/2001.

Ethnic groups

Unlike the United States of America, United Kingdom, and Australian Censuses, the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India,[27] but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India).

It should be noted that Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic are mainly linguistic terms and denote speakers of these linguistic groups.

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram above.

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India